Writing is one of the language skills that need to be mastered by the language learners. Writing something can be an enjoyable activity because by writing someone can express something in written then share it with others. Based on Tuddy Wallace (2005:15) writing is the final product of several separate acts that are hugely challenging to learn simultaneously. Curriculum KTSP for basic education states that one of writing genres must be mastered by the eight grade students is recount text. In document Final of English Curriculum August 2003, recount text is defined as a text that retells events in purpose of informing or entertaining.
Recount text is a text that describe past - activities in chronological order. Teacher must be able to find one way to the students how they can explore their capability in writing. In this writing the writer will use The insert method of Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) mode for the students to explore their capability in writing recount text. The writer believes that if the students write something based on their personal experience, the students will be easier to develop their idea in writing. Quoted from MaryEllen Vogt (2009-2) the SIOP® Model, derived from the SIOP® observation protocol, includes eight instructional components and thirty features that, when used in combination consistently and systematically, have been found to improve English learners’ academic achievement (Echevarria, Short, & Powers, 2006; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008). One technique in teaching using SIOP is the insert method. In insert method the students will study in group, then they will read the recount text, give the code to the reading text and based on the codes given the students will be able to recognize the recount text then write their own recount text.
By applying the insert method the writer hopes that the students will be able to develop their own recount text easily. The significance of this writing is to investigate whether the insert code technique is good or not to be applied in teaching writing. If it is good, the writer hopes the teacher can use this technique in teaching learning process.
Writing is a difficult skill to be studied. It needs a lot of practices. Writing needs grammar understanding; hence the sentences made are structurally correct. Students mostly feel it is difficult to write something in English, because they can not use the appropriate tense for their sentences. Because of that it is important for the students to learn more about tenses in order to improve their writing ability.
English grammar is quiet different with Indonesian grammar. In English we can use simple past tense to describe something begun and ended in the past. In Indonesian there is no this kind of rule to describe more about something begun and ended in the past. Indonesian uses time signal to indicate the time. We can look at the examples as follow:
English: I finished my assignment just now.
Saya sudah menyelesaikan tugas saya beberapa menit yang lalu.
From the sentences above we can see the difference between English and Indonesian to indicate something happen which begun and ended in the past. There is no specific tense to show the time in Indonesian. Therefore many students find it is difficult to learn simple past tense.
It will be worse, when the students must write their own text. In the syllabus of junior high school 2004, one text must be learnt by the eighth year student is recount text. Recount text is a text that tells about activities or something happen in the past. It means the students must be able to explore something happened in the past. Hence, students must learn about past tense. If the students have the knowledge of past tense, the students can write recount text grammatically correct. In this writing the writer will focus to use two past tenses, simple past tense and past continues tense.
The procedures of the writing will be as follow:
• The teacher will explain about simple past tense and past continues tense
• The teacher will give an example of recount text about the teacher experience on the last semester holiday
• The teacher will explain about recount text
• The teacher will ask the students to work in group and do insert method to find out the generic structure of the text
• The teacher will give some questions related to students interesting holiday
• The teacher will ask the students to make a recount text about their interesting holiday
A. THEORY OF WRITING
There are some micro-skills for writing Douglas Brown (2001:343) stated micro-skills for writing, they are :
• producing graphemes and orthographic patterns of English,
• producing writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose,
• producing an acceptable core of words and use appropriate word order pattern,
• using acceptable grammatical systems (e.g., tense, agreement, pluralizasion), patterns and rules, express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms,
• using cohesive devices in written discourse, use the rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse, approximately accomplish the communicative functions of written texts according to form and purpose, convey links and connections between events and communicate such relation as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization, distinguish between literal and implied meaning when writing, and correctly convey culturally specific references in the context of the written text
B. THEORY OF SIMPLE PAST TENSE
Wishon (1980:195) said that simple past tense is used for activities that occurred over a period of past time, but it finished at the past time too.
Azzar (1989:24) states that simple past tense is a tense indicate the activity or situation which began and ended at the past time.
The pattern of simple past tense as follows:
1. Verbal sentence
(+) Subject + verb 2...
(-) subject + did not + verb 1 ....
(?) Did + subject + verb 1 ...?
2. Non verbal sentence
(+) Subject + was/ were ...
(-) Subject + was / were not ...
(?) Was/ were + subject ...?
C. PAST CONTINUES TENSE
Based on Learning materials/Grammar & Punctuation/1. Tenses/1.6 PAST continuous.doc past continues tense is used to say that somebody was in the middle of doing something at a certain time. The action or situation had already started before this but had not finished.
Example of this in action:
Yesterday Sanjit met Harjinder for lunch at one o’clock. They finished at two o’clock. Therefore at one thirty, they were having lunch
D. RECOUNT TEXT
Based on Primary Framework for literacy and mathematics page 1 recounts (or accounts as they are sometimes called) are the most common kind of texts we encounter and create. Their primary purpose is to retell events. They are the basic form of many story telling texts and in non-fiction texts they are used to create factual accounts of events (either current or historical). Recounts can entertain and/or inform.
Anne Hodgson said that recount text tells about something happened in the past. It can be happened to the writer or someone else. The purpose of recount text is to retell an event or events. The generic structure of recount text are :
• Event/ events
Definition of recount text on New Zealand Qualifications Authority 2004 Historical recount refers to an account of a factual past event or biography not involving the writer, which hasan orientation, record of events, and a reorientation. Personal recount refers to a factual account of events involving the writer
Pardiyono (2007: 66-67) divides the function of elements recount text in the table as follows:
ORIENTATION To take the reader interest
To show the reader the past activities/events that will be presented
To introduce the participant in the text
To introduce the place of the story happened
To introduce the time of the story happened
RECORD OF EVENTS To tell the chronological order of the events
Using sequence markers, such as first, next, then, first and finally
Using the past tenses such as simple past tense and past continues tense
RE-ORINTATION To express personal attitude about the events in the story
Based on Pardiyono (2007:64-65) to help the students writing recount text, teacher can give some question related rhetorical structures of recount text, the questions are as follows:
Questions related to orientation
• did you have holiday on the Idul Fitri 2009?
• Where did you go?
• When did you go?
• Whom do you go with?
Question related to record of events
• Can you tell us the places you visited on Idul Fitri 2009 holiday?
• How did you go there?
• What did you do on each place?
• How long did you stay there?
• Did you have a good time there?
Questions related to re-orientation
• How did you feel?
E. SHELTERED INSTRUCTION OBSERVATION PROTOCOL TEACHING MODEL
Quoted from MarryEllen Vogt (2009:2) the SIOP® Model, derived from the SIOP® observation protocol, includes eight instructional components and thirty features that, when used in combination consistently and systematically, have been found to improve English learners’ academic achievement (Echevarria, Short, & Powers, 2006; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2008).
Based on Susan Hanson and Canisius Filibert (2009:1) sheltered instruction means that the students receive help in developing academic English while they are learning grade-level content material. Students are provided extra support by including instructional techniques that make learning comprehensible to students. Based on Susan Hanson and Canisius Filibert (2009: 1-4) there are eight components of SIOP, they are as follows:
Teachers state the content objectives that are taken from the state or national standards. They plan meaningful activities to meet the objectives. In addition, they select language objectives for each lesson that aredrawn from language arts standards. The selected standards for the content and language arts are posted so both the students and teachers are lear on the focus of the lesson with the ultimate goal of the students mastering the content while growing in academic English.
2. Building Background
Teachers connect the students’ background and past experiences with the new learning. They help students comprehend by teaching the vocabulary that is key to understanding of the material. They explicitly teach the content vocabulary inareas such as ecosystems, coastal nations, and exploitation. In addition emphasis is placed on teaching the students the academic vocabulary that is so essential to understanding the content. Examples of academic vocabulary include such words and phrases as “calculate,” “predict,” “in comparison,” and “as a result.” According to Saville-Troike, “Vocabulary development is critical for English learners because we know that there is a strong relationship between vocabulary knowledge in English and academic achievement”(as quoted in Echevarria, Vogt, and Short’s 2004 book Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOPModel [2nd Ed.], p. 49). Through the SIOP model, teachers utilize techniques to provide active involvement, personalize word learning, immerse students in words, and provide repeated exposure to words in more than one context. As a result of the indepth teaching of the vocabulary, the students are better able to comprehend the content and further the development of their academic English.
3. Comprehensible Input
Teachers make lessons comprehensible by using vocabulary that the students understand, stating directions orally and in writing, and demonstrating what the students are expected to do. In addition, the students are given guided practice and are involved in a variety of techniques that provide hands-on practice. The students are provided with support such as prediction guides, visual aides, and other supplemental materials. The information is shared at an appropriate pace and enunciated clearly. According to Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (p. 78), “Effective sheltered teachers provide explanations of academic tasks in ways that make clear what students are expected to accomplish and that promote student success.”
Teachers use explicit instructional strategies, such as questioning techniques, to support higher-level thinking that involves predicting, summarizing, problem solving, organizing, evaluating, and self-monitoring. The instructional strategies also involve the students in scaffolding techniques that provide the right amount of support and help move the students to the next level. The students are given the time to practice the strategies with support from their peers and the teacher, as well as opportunities to implement the strategies independently. An example of a strategy encouraged in the SIOP model is the use of graphic organizers to assist students with visually organizing their learning. According to Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (who cite Fisher, Frey, & Williams, 2002; Pressley, 2000; Shearer, Ruddell, & Vogt; and Slater & Horstman, 2002), “There is considerable evidence that teaching students a variety of selfregulating strategies improves student learning and reading.”
The teacher provides the students with continual opportunities to interact with peers through flexible grouping. Sometimes the students are in small groups, triads, or pairs where every student has an opportunity to speak and work on projects together. Through the various group activities, students are encouraged to interact with each other and have time for extended academic conversations with their peers. Teacher talk is reduced and the students are encouraged to talk more with such questions as, Tell me more about that, or Can you tell us why you think that? Students are given adequate wait time so they can communicate their answers.
6. Practice and Application
This component of the SIOP model reinforces the importance of using hands-on material and manipulatives. Teachers plan small-group activities involving hands-on experiences that provide students with relevant information about the content and an opportunity to practice what they are learning. Echevarria, Vogt, & Short (p. 118) state that, “Manipulating learning materials is important for Els because it helps them connect abstract concepts with concrete experiences.” The students are provided opportunities to discuss and apply what they are learning through integration of reading, writing, listening, and speaking. By integrating all of the language arts areas, the ELs grow in their English language ability as well as learn the content.
7. Lesson Delivery
The teacher focuses on the content and language objectives of the lesson and involves the students actively in meeting the objectives. Lessons are delivered at the appropriate pace so that the students can learn the material and not be bored. Students are engaged in the lesson 90% to 100% of the time through well-planned lessons that are understandable to the students, create opportunities for students to talk about the concepts, and include hands-on activities that reinforce each lesson.
The teachers provide the appropriate feedback so that the students can continue to grow, review the key concepts to ensure long-lasting learning, and provide assessment to track student progress. The teachers are involved in the “Effective Teaching Cycle for ELs,” which includes the following steps: teach a lesson, assess, review key concepts and vocabulary, make adjustments to improve student comprehension, and reteach as needed. This process is a cycle that is recursive in that each of the steps can be repeated as needed.
F. INSERT METHOD
Based on MarryEllen Vogt (2009:11) the Strategies component of insert method focuses on the cognitive and metacognitive strategies that learners use to make sense of new information and concepts. Examples of learning strategies include rereading, note-taking, organizing information, predicting, self-questioning, evaluating, monitoring, clarifying, and summarizing. Studies have shown that explicit teaching and modeling of these (and other) strategies helps students become more strategic in their thinking and learning. Teachers can further develop students’ strategic thinking by planning and asking higher-order questions and requiring tasks that promote critical thinking. It is no longer acceptable to ask English learners a preponderance of low-level questions.
The Insert Method(adapted from MarryEllen Vogt)
COMPONENT:writing recount text
Grouping Configuration: Partners
Materials: recount text on paper students can write on
In partners, students read a recount text using the following coding system, inserting
the codes directly into the text they are reading:
• A check (√) mark indicates a concept or fact that is already known by the students.
• A question (?) mark indicates a concept or fact that is confusing or not understood.
• An exclamation mark (!) indicates something that is new, unusual or surprising.
• A (+) indicates an idea or concept that is new to the reader.
When the partners have concluded reading and marking the text, they share their markings
with another set of partners. As misconceptions or misunderstandings are cleared up, the
question mark is replaced with an asterisk (*). Following this small group work, the text is
discussed with the teacher and the whole class.
Students will be able to (SWBAT) . . .
• Use a coding system while reading a recount text to identify concepts or facts that are familiar, those that are confusing, and those that are new, unusual, or surprising.
• Clarify misconceptions and misunderstandings about a text while working with group
• Write their own recount text
Students will be able to (SWBAT) . . .
• Ask questions about concepts and facts that are confusing.
• Read and discuss with group members a piece of recount text.
• Write their own recount text
Azzar, Betty Schrampfer. 1989. Understanding and Using English Grammar. Prentice Hall inc. New Jersey.
Brown, H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principles:An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Prentice Wall. New Jersey.
Crimmon. 1983. Writing with Purpose. New Jersey: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Hodgson, Anne. 2007. Recount. Beechwood Colledge. Available at http//www.skillworkshop.org
Recount Text. Primary Framework for literacy and mathematics Primary National Strategy © Crown copyright 2006
Vogt, Mary Ellen and Echevarría, Jana.Teaching English Learners with the SIOP® Model .California State University, Long Beach
Wallace Trudy . Teaching speaking, listening and writing.2005. Available at http://www.curtin.edu.au/curtin/dept/smec/iae.